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    _生死场_中的萧红_丛黎.docx

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    _生死场_中的萧红_丛黎.docx

    Lives Lived 历史的记忆 Tm a woman. Women’s sky is low and women’s wings are weak we were born with S lifelong, cumbersome burdens. That was the sentiment of Xiao Hong, a novelist, short- \ s t o r y writer and poet, who once spoke those words to sum up the lives of women in J old China. She died young, but, in a writing career that lasted less than 10 years, she left many superb works. To most people, her life was an enigma. u我是个女性。女性的天空是低的 , 羽翼是稀 薄的,而身边的累赘又是笨重的 1 __这是她作为一个生活在旧中国的女性的人生感 言。她英年早逝,在不到 10 年的写作生涯中留下了近百万字的作品。她留给后世无数闪光的文字,也留下了无数谜。正是何 人绘得萧红影,望断青天一缕霞。 ______________ ______________________ f A Long List of Accomplishments in a Short Career 生死场中的肃红 CONG U丛黎 Unhappy Childhood 惨淡的童年 Even though her life was cut short, at 31, Xiao Hong her given name was Zhang Naiying made her mark on the world and most certainly on China. She was born in 1911 to a landholding family in Hulan County, in northeastern China’s Heilongjiang Province. Her father, Zhang Tingju, a land 丨 ord and teaching school graduate, had been the director of the countys education bureau. Her mother, Jiang Yulan, was a housewife. Due in part to the fact that feudal China regarded men as superior to women, and girls were discriminated against even when they were born, Xiao felt unhappy from the time she was a young girl. Her mother died when she was nine, and three months later her father remarried. Xiaos stepmother mistreated her and her younger brother. So, Xiao and her brother moved in with their grandfather, who became their first teacher. After Xiao became a famous writer, she wrote, in her essay Lifelong Long/ngs anc/ Purse/ From my grandfather, I learned that besides coldness and hatred, there were also warmth and love in life. With her grandfathers support, Xiao began attending primary school in Hulan County. In 1927, she enrolfed in a girls high school in Harbin, capital of Heilongjiang Province. There, she developed her interest in fine arts and literature. Upon her graduation, Xiao published a poem in the school magazine. In November 1928, in defiance of her fathers opposition and the headmasters advice, Xiao joined the protest against the Japanese plan to build Jidun Railway through her hometown. While she was participating in the campus protests, Xiao frequently rubbed elbows which was taboo fo「 women at that time with male 6〇 \\MB 2007.07 classmates. Worried that Xiao would ruin the familys reputation, her father arranged marriage for her. When she learned that Wang Enjia, her future husband, was an unscrupulous man, she renounced the engagement. In 1930, her grandfather, who had been her only true guardian, died. Around the same time, her father forced her to quit school and return home. Xiao had no option but to return home. As a young woman with revolutionary thoughts and ideas, Xiao did not have any ideas in common with her family members. And the others treated her with indifference. In the autumn of 1930, Xiao’s uncles, who were trying to both raise the rent for their land and reduce farmhands payments, had several serious clashes with the local peasants. Xiao tried to stop her uncles; for her efforts, she was beaten and locked in an empty room. Her uncles sent a telegram to Xiaos father suggesting that they hang her to avoid future troubles. An aunt, who sympathized with Xiao, helped her escape. First Lover 巧遇知音 In 1930, Xiao escaped to Peking now Beijing, where she led the life of a vagrant. The next year, Wang, who was still her fiancee, tracked her down and persuaded her to live with him. Tired of being a lonely migrant, Xiao agreed. The following year, they returned to Harbin, where they lived in a small hotel. Without a source of income, they soon owed the hotel money. Wang ran out on Xiao, who was pregnant with his child. To recover his losses, the hotels owner planned to sell Xiao to a brothel. During the summer of 1932, Xiao wrote asking for help to the editorial office of Wenyi, one o\ the supplements to the Guoji Xiebao, the most influential privately run newspaper in Harbin at that time. Xiao Jun, one of the newspapers editors, was sent to save her. Xiao Hong was overjoyed when Xiao Jun arrived to help her. The latter was moved by Xiao Hongs experiences, and he said At this time, I feel the world is changing, the season is changing, people are changing and my thoughts are changing too. This woman is the most beautiful of all of my acquaintances. Maybe she is the most beautiful woman in the world I must try to save her, and her beautiful soul, at any cost Xiao Jun and Xiao Hong were married without a ceremony that autumn. They led a hard, but happy, life. The Debut 步入文坛 Influenced by some revolutionist writers, Xiao Hong launched her writing career. She published many short stories, essays and poems in the newspapers. Her early works, which reflected her immaturity as a writer and the writing skills of a beginner, revealed her rare insight ol the reality as she focused on serious subjects of social Xiao Hong and Xiao Jun 萧红与萧军 problems. Through her writing, Xiao Hong focused on the lives of millions of exploited laborers, which revealed her concern about social problems and her sympathy for laborers. In October 1934, with support from her friends, Trudging, a collection of short stories, written by her and Xiao Jun, was published at their expense. Around this time, Xiao Hong wrote some of the chapters of The Field of Life and Death. Early in the summer of 1934, the Xiaos left Harbin for Qingdao, to escape Japanese invaders. In Qingdao, in 1935, Xiao Hong finished The Field of Life and Death. Eventually, the Xiaos settled down in Shanghai, where they became intimate friends of Lu Xun 1881-1936, a distinguished member of the League of Left-wing Writers. The F i e l d o f L i f e a n d D e a t h established Xiao Hongs reputation as a novelist; it was one of the earliest novels to deal with Chinas fight against Japanese aggressors. In the novels preface, Lu Xun wrote The northeastern writer boasts a thorough understanding of peoples adamancy 2007.07 Lives Lived 历史的记忆 for life and struggle against death. With painstaking observation and the superb writing skills of a woman, she adds more novelty and charm to this novel. On the books cover, Xiao Hong drew a picture the territory of China, on which the northeastern region was split with a straight line, to symbolize how the northeastern region was being ravaged by Japanese invaders. The novel was an instant success. Its publication created a great sensation within the literary community in Shanghai, as it was contained profound feelings and was a miniature of the sanguinary reality, remarked Xu Guangping, wife of Lu Xun. With Lu Xuns help, Xiao Hong entered Shanghais literary community, and she became a productive writer. In 1935 and 1936, Xiao Hong, who was extremely productive, was at her happiest. However, that happiness didnt last tong. The many quarrels between her and Xiao Jun began to divide the couple, and eventually they were estranged. Depressed, Xiao Hong went to Japan, alone, in the summer of 1936. Before her departure, Lu hosted a farewell dinner, in his home, and encouraged her to take good care of herself. Xiao Hong could not have known that would be the last time she would see her friend. While in Japan, she was saddened by the news of Lus death, which prompted her to write Mourning from Overseas. Second Marriage 再结良缘 In January 1937, Xiao Hong returned to China to meet Xiao Jun. However, they failed to reconcile. Three months later, Xiao Hong moved to Peking alone. Some time later, she received a letter from Xiao Jun, in which he wrote that he was ill. He asked her to meet him in Shanghai. Months later, Shanghai was bombarded by Japanese aggressors. Despite the bombing, she wrote two essays Sleepless Night and Dotted Sky. In October that year, the Xiaos moved to Wuhan, in Central Chinas Hubei Province, as did other literary figures. There, Xiao Hong launched O/yue, a magazine, with Xiao Jun and leftist writer Xiao Hong and her mother 萧红与生母 Duanmu Hongliang 1912-1996. Her fondness for Duanmu grew. In January 1938, the Xiaos and Duanmu moved to Linfen, Shanxi Province, to teach at the National Revolution University. A month later, the city was invaded by the Japanese. Xiao Jun stayed at the school while Xiao Hong, Duanmu and others fled to Xian, in Northwest Chinas Shaanxi Province. On the train to Xian, Xiao Hong joined the creation of a script drama, the three-act drama Onslaught. The Xiaos divorced after six years of marriage, and never met each other again. In 1938, Xiao Hong returned to Wuhan with Duanmu, and they were married in a restaurant. After they moved to Chongqing, Xiao Hong concentrated on her writing, while Duanmu taught in a university. Xiao Hong completed the essay Remembering Master Lu Xun, which was well received and eventually became a masterpiece. Fighting Death ‘‘ 身先死,不甘 , 不甘 ” In January 1940, Xiao moved, with Duanmu, to Hong Kong. Her health soon began to deteriorate, and she eventually developed tuberculosis. Frequent coughing, headaches, insomnia and depression tormented her. She spent much of her time in bed. The only social activity in which she participated was the commemoration of Lu Xuns 60th birthday, which was hosted by the Hong Kong literary circle. She wrote Lu Xun, The Soul of China. In the early 1940s, Xiao Hong finished two lengthy novels, Ma Bole 1940, Tales of Hulan River 1942, the novella Small Town in March and some essays and short stories. On December 8, 1941, the Pacific War broke out. Japanese invaders occupied Hong Kong and Kowloon. Xiao Hong was staying in Kowloon. On December 25, Hong Kong surrendered to the Japanese. Amid the upheaval in the region, Xiao Hong was sent to three local hospitals to receive treatment. She died on January 22, 1941. She was 31. She left behind many literary works and an enigma. Before her death, Xiao Hong asked her friends to try to take her to see Lu Xuns wife, as she wanted to be with her dearest friend. Xiao Hong wasnt ready to die. Before her death, she wrote I have suffered indifference and mistreatment through my short life. Im not ready to die an early death. All my pain and bad luck are because Im a woman. ■ cutive Editors LI JIANG5HU and ESTHER ZHAO 责任编辑李江树兆瑞臻 62 聊 F』、 明 2007.07

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