欢迎来到得力文库 - 分享文档赚钱的网站! | 帮助中心 好文档才是您的得力助手!

得力文库 - 分享文档赚钱的网站

全部分类
  • 研究报告>
    研究报告
    其他报告 可研报告 医学相关 环评报告 节能报告 项目建议 论证报告 机械工程 设计方案 版权保护 对策研究 可行性报告 合同效力 饲养管理 给排水 招标问题
  • 管理文献>
    管理文献
    管理手册 管理方法 管理工具 管理制度 事务文书 其他资料 商业计划书 电力管理 电信行业策划 产品策划 家电策划 保健医疗策划 化妆品策划 建材卫浴策划 酒水策划 汽车策划 日化策划 医药品策划 策划方案 财务管理 企业管理
  • 标准材料>
    标准材料
    石化标准 机械标准 金属冶金 电力电气 车辆标准 环境保护 医药标准 矿产资源 建筑材料 食品加工 农药化肥 道路交通 塑料橡胶
  • 技术资料>
    技术资料
    施工组织 技术标书 技术方案 实施方案 技术总结 技术规范 国家标准 行业标准 地方标准 企业标准 其他杂项
  • 教育专区>
    教育专区
    高考资料 高中物理 高中化学 高中数学 高中语文 小学资料 幼儿教育 初中资料 高中资料 大学资料 成人自考 家庭教育 小学奥数 单元课程 教案示例
  • 应用文书>
    应用文书
    工作报告 毕业论文 工作计划 PPT文档 图纸下载 绩效教核 合同协议 工作总结 公文通知 策划方案 文案大全 工作总结 汇报体会 解决方案 企业文化 党政司法 经济工作 工矿企业 教育教学 城建环保 财经金融 项目管理 工作汇报 财务管理 培训材料 物流管理 excel表格 人力资源
  • 生活休闲>
    生活休闲
    资格考试 党风建设 休闲娱乐 免费资料 生活常识 励志创业 佛教素材
  • 考试试题>
    考试试题
    消防试题 微信营销 升学试题 高中数学 高中政治 高中地理 高中历史 初中语文 初中英语 初中物理 初中数学 初中化学 小学数学 小学语文 教师资格 会计资格 一级建造 事业单位考试 语文专题 数学专题 地理专题 模拟试题库 人教版专题 试题库答案 习题库 初中题库 高中题库 化学试题 期中期末 生物题库 物理题库 英语题库
  • pptx模板>
    pptx模板
    企业培训 校园应用 入职培训 求职竞聘 商业计划书 党政军警 扁平风格 创意新颖 动态模版 高端商务 工作办公 节日庆典 静态模板 卡通扁平 融资路演 述职竟聘 图标系列 唯美清新 相册纪念 政府汇报 中国风格 商业管理(英) 餐饮美食
  • 工商注册>
    工商注册
    设立变更 计量标准 广告发布 检验检测 特种设备 办事指南 医疗器械 食药局许可
  • 期刊短文>
    期刊短文
    信息管理 煤炭资源 基因工程 互联网 农业期刊 期刊 短文 融资类 股权相关 民主制度 水产养殖 养生保健
  • 图片设计>
    图片设计
    工程图纸
  • 换一换
    首页 得力文库 - 分享文档赚钱的网站 > 资源分类 > DOCX文档下载
     

    02 The Pattern of Food Expenditures.docx

    • 资源ID:1099       资源大小:69.59KB        全文页数:10页
    • 资源格式: DOCX        下载权限:游客/注册会员    下载费用:2金币 【人民币2元】
    快捷注册下载 游客一键下载
    会员登录下载
    三方登录下载: 微信开放平台登录 QQ登录  
    下载资源需要2金币 【人民币2元】
    邮箱/手机:
    温馨提示:
    支付成功后,系统会自动生成账号(用户名和密码都是您填写的邮箱或者手机号),方便下次登录下载和查询订单;
    支付方式: 支付宝    微信支付   
    验证码:   换一换

     
    友情提示
    2、PDF文件下载后,可能会被浏览器默认打开,此种情况可以点击浏览器菜单,保存网页到桌面,既可以正常下载了。
    3、本站不支持迅雷下载,请使用电脑自带的IE浏览器,或者360浏览器、谷歌浏览器下载即可。
    4、本站资源下载后的文档和图纸-无水印,预览文档经过压缩,下载后原文更清晰   

    02 The Pattern of Food Expenditures.docx

    The Pattern of Food Expenditures Authors Dorothy S. Brady and Helen A. Barber Source The Review of Economics and Statistics, Vol. 30, No. 3 Aug., 1948, pp. 198-206 Published by The MIT Press Stable URL http//www.jstor.org/stable/1926749 Accessed 17-03-2017 0949 UTC JSTOR is a not-for-profit service that helps scholars, researchers, and students discover, use, and build upon a wide range of content in a trusted digital archive. We use ination technology and tools to increase productivity and facilitate new s of scholarship. For more ination about JSTOR, please contact supportjstor.org. Your use of the JSTOR archive indicates your acceptance of the Terms Conditions of Use, available at http//about.jstor.org/terms The MIT Press is collaborating with JSTOR to digitize, preserve and extend access to The Review of Economics and Statistics This content downloaded from 67.66.218.73 on Fri, 17 Mar 2017 094913 UTC All use subject to http//about.jstor.org/terms THE PATTERN OF FOOD EXPENDITURES Dorothy S. Brady and Helen A. Barber INTRODUCTION AND SUMMARY IN a discussion of a paper on the correlation between savings and the income distribution, Simon Kuznets noted that the savings curves for different places or different dates can be de- scribed as differing with respect to level and with respect to slope.1 This description holds as well when savings are compared in terms of relative income position as when savings are related to current dollar income. If the term “level” is defined as a difference in position that can be eliminated by a translation of the coordinates, and the term slope defined as a difference in scale that can be eliminated by an expansion or contraction of the coordinate units,Mr. Kuznets’ observations imply that a transation of the xr a bx y’ c dy may close the differences between the savings curves for different places or different dates. Such a linear transation expressing a translation and an expansion of the coordinates, it appears, reduces substantially the difference between the food expenditures of urban families in relation to income for the surveys made between 1901 and 1944 throughout the range of incomes up to the sixth or seventh decile. The parameters of the transation may be interpreted as measures of “level” which reflects secular changes in the standard of food consumption and of aprice, in a general sense. The transation also reduces the differences between income distributions and thus describes a correspondence between the food expenditure curve and the income distribution. FOOD EXPENDITURE AND INCOME The food expenditure curve was chosen for the examination of this approach for two rea- 1 Simon Kuznets, “Comment on Dorothy S. Brady and [198 ] sons. The variation between the food curves, food expenditures expressed as a percentage of income, is reduced in general more than the savings curves when correlated with relative income position.2 Secondly, it is now possible to eliminate the variation due to family size from the data by a fairly accurate adjustment procedure.3 For this study the observed data on average food expenditures by income bracket were all standardized to the corresponding figure for 3.5 persons as the average size of family. The average size 3.5 persons was se Rose D. Friedman, ‘Savings and the Income Distribution, ’ ’’ Studies in Income and Wealth, Volume io National Bureau of Economic Research, New York, 1947. 2 Rose D. Friedman initiated the study of the food expenditure curves and other group curves in this manner in order to trace, if possible, the changes in consumption pattern that are associated with changes in the position of the curve for total expenditures or its complement, total savings. Some tentative results of this study are being prepared for publication. 3 The adjustment procedure is based on a study of the regressions of food expenditures on family size at the same income bracket for all the surveys, from 1901 to date, that have tabulated food expenditures by income and size of family. The regressions are logarithmic, log y a b log x, where y is the food expenditure and x is the size of family. The regression coefficient, b, varies from about 0.25 to 0.50 and appears to center around Ys, the value taken pro tem as the average. While in the lower and middle income brackets there appears no tendency for the values of uby, to change systematically with income, at the highest incomes observed the values of all tend to be above the average. It is possible that the values of “6” increase at first slowly and then more and more rapidly with income, but this interaction, which may be due to an increasing proportion of adults in families of each size, say 4 persons, as the income is increased, remains to be explored. For the purposes of this study, the average value of Yz was accepted as applicable throughout the entire range of incomes. The adjustment factor was accordingly based on the relation between the mean and the mean cube root for the size of family as determined by the distributions of families by size within income brackets observed in recent surveys. The relationship found is purely empirical and applies only to urban families. The mean cube root y is related to the mean x as follows y .1138 log -f .8731 This relation provides the basis for adjusting the observed average expenditure on food for the observed average size of family to the average food expenditure for any other average size. This content downloaded from 67.66.218.73 on Fri, 17 Mar 2017 094913 UTC All use subject to http//about.jstor.org/terms ;45i 217 643 284 883 354 1118 406 1358 444 1631 486 1879 544 2316 614 ;771 338 832 354 i〇 75 426 1344474 1632 SiS 1925 560 2272 616 2790 723 ;792 342 1324 S〇 i 1835 651 2641 840 3469 920 4320 1089 1934 f 1935-36 4 1941 TT 1944 Average Income Average Expenditure For Food Average Income Average Expenditure For Food Average Income Average Expenditure For Food Average Income Average Expenditure For Food 592 292 3〇 5 241 3〇 4 33〇 313 424 771 332 622 293 738 378 776 492 1065 4〇 3 856 352 I29〇 498 1243 6〇 I 1343 459 1090 413 1764 604 1779 736 1633 519 1324 467 2448 716 2259 855 1929 567 1686 537 3757 837 2757 948 2250 625 2150 614 6575 I〇 5l 3480 1025 2798 726 2625 683 13987 1710 4408 1100 3312 761 7595 1314 4247 847 6641 1085 * For of standardizing the data for family size, see text, t Eighteenth Annual Report of the Commissioner of Labor “Cost of Living and the Retail Prices of Food,” 1903. Average income taken as the midpoint of the intervals except for the class 1,200, which was estimated from the average income of the entire sample. The data relate to urban communities of all sizes. t Great Britain Board of Trade, “Cost of Living in American Towns,’’ 1911. The averages for the North and the South, nationality and racial groups shown separately in the report were weighted together using the census proportions for the North and South, white and negro groups and the survey proportions for the nationality groups. The data relate to wage-earner families in large cities. U. S. Bureau of Labor Statistics Bulletin 357, nCost of Living in the United States.” The data relate to wage-earner families in cities of all sizes. || Special tabulation of the data collected by the U. S. Bureau of Labor Statistics for the study of ‘‘Cost of Living of Federai Employees in Five Cities, in 1927-28 presented in Leven, Moulton, and Warbur- ton, Americas Capacity to Consume. The lowest observation for the average income 792 is from special tabulations, presented in the same source, of the data from the study of the Welfare of the Children of Maintenance-of-Way Employees,” U. S. Children’s Bureau. The data for the two surveys coincide sufficiently, when standardized for family size, at the average incomes between 1300 and 1400 and between 1800 and 1900 to justify this “splicing.” The data relate to five large cities. f U. S. Bureau of Labor Statistics Bulletins 636, 639, 640, 641, aMoney Disbursements of Wage-Earners and Clerical Workers, 1934- 36.n The data for the city surveys relating to the year 1934 were combined and represent white families in large cities outside of the New York City area. ** National Resources Planning Board, “Family Expenditures in the United States, Statistical Tables and Appendixes.” The data relate to all occupational groups in urban communities of all sizes. ft U S. Bureau of Labor Statistics Bulletin 822, “Family Spending and Saving in Wartime.” The data on annual food expenditures in 1941 were adjusted on the basis of a comparison with the reports on weekly food expenditures in the second quarter of 1942, which indicated that at the income levels above 2500, annual food expenditures in 1941 had been reported at the expenditure level prevailing in April- June, 1942. The data apply to all occupational groups in urban communities of all sizes. U. S. Bureau of Labor Statistics Serial No. R 1818, “Expenditures and Savings of City Families in 1944.” THE PATTERN OF FOOD EXPENDITURES lected because that value was close to the average size of family in the greater part of the income classes in the 1935-36 study. The advantages of eliminating the influence of differences in family size outweigh the errors that may result from using a tentative adjustment procedure. In every family expenditure study in this country, the average size of family increases with the family income, and the relation between family size and income differs from survey to survey. The relationship between expenditures and income is accordingly 199 confounded with the relationship between expenditures and the size of family, unless the data are tabulated separately by size of family and income. This, unfortunately, has not been a uni practice and some like the one described here must be developed in order to allow for the study of the changes overtime in the influence of income on expenditures independent of the size of family. The data on food expenditures standardized to the constant average size of family are shown in Table 1. They represent in general TABLE 1. THE FOOD EXPENDITURE CURVE AVERAGE EXPENDITURES FOR FOOD AT SPECIFIED DATES AMONG URBAN FAMILIES, AVERAGING 3.5 PERSONS BY INCOME LEVEL 19011 19091 1918 1927-2811 Average Average Average Average Average Expenditure Average Expenditure Average Expenditure AverageExpenditure Income For Food Income For Food Income For Food Income For Food 0330220612858I468QI347II222233333 00000000000s 055555555556 1234567890I4 III This content downloaded from 67.66.218.73 on Fri, 17 Mar 2017 094913 UTC All use subject to http//about.jstor.org/terms 2 00 THE REVIEW OF ECONOMICS AND STATISTICS the pattern of food expenditures in urban communities between 1901 and 1944. The investigations providing these data differed considerably with respect to survey technique and population coverage, and these differences without doubt influence quantitative comparisons of the data. Until systematic procedures are developed for measuring their influence on consumption, the various factors affecting the comparability of the data from the different studies can only be recognized in appraising the results of the analysis.4 CHARACTERISTICS OF THE FOOD EXPENDITURE CURVE There are many transations of the a bx c dy which will bring the food expenditure curves approximately into coincidence, so that statistical tests would reveal a significant decrease in the differences between the curves. Thus, if the curves are represented by linear regressions , an indefinite number of transations could be determined that convert one line into the position of another, unless some criterion is introduced that is equivalent to matching two pairs of observations. To identify corresponding points on two food expenditure curves requires an examination of the curves for characteristics that do not change when they are transed, that is moved horizontally and vertically with an expansion or contraction of the scales. Thus the maximum point in a curve corresponds with the maximum on the curve obtained through a transation. Similarly, an inflection point, where the direction of curvature changes, corresponds to an inflection point in the curve that results from the transation. In order to study the characteristics of the food expendi- 4 The chief difference between the surveys is in population coverage. The surveys for 1901, 1909, 1918, and 1934 were limited to the “wage-earner” group, the 1927-28 survey to federal employees, whereas the surveys for 1935-36, 1941, and 1944 included all occupational groups. The existing ination which reveals no evidence of occupational differences in food expenditures, given the same income and size of family, comes from the 193S-36 survey and therefore is too limited for generalization. The surveys for 1909, 1927-28, and 1934 apply to large cities, the others to all cities. The data available, chiefly from the 1935-36 survey, reveal a distinct difference in the food consumption pattern in large cities and in small. ture curve, the first three derivatives were estimated by calculating the successive divided differences and associating them with the successive midpoints between the averages on the income scale Tables 2, 3, and 4. The first derivative measures the rate of change of expenditures with income at each point on the income scale. The first derivative clearly has a resembling a frequency curve in the most recent periods, 1935-36, 1941, and 1944. It rises to a maximum and then falls as incomes are increased. In the earlier surveys, 1901, 1909, 1918,and 1927- 28 , the first derivative in general declines through the range of observations, but the first two values differ less than the second and third. The question whether a maximum on the first derivative appears near the lowest end of observational range may be decided by an examination of the estimates of the second derivative. The second derivative measures the rate of change in the first derivative with income at each point on the income scale. It is the ‘‘acceleration’’ of the expenditure curve. In most of the surveys,the second derivative of the food expenditure curve declines from a positive value to a negative minimum, then rises and flattens off, perhaps approaching some small negative constant value. In the “neighborhood” of the minimum, the curve describing the second derivative is fairly symmetric like a parabola. By accepting this symmetry as general, a zero value can be found for all the surveys, either by interpolation or extrapolation. This assumption leads to postulating the existence of a maximum in the first derivative for all surveys, since at the maximum of a function its rate of change becomes zero in passing from a positive value to a negative value. Th

    注意事项

    本文(02 The Pattern of Food Expenditures.docx)为本站会员(admin)主动上传,得力文库 - 分享文档赚钱的网站仅提供信息存储空间,仅对用户上传内容的表现方式做保护处理,对上载内容本身不做任何修改或编辑。 若此文所含内容侵犯了您的版权或隐私,请立即通知得力文库 - 分享文档赚钱的网站(点击联系客服),我们立即给予删除!

    温馨提示:如果因为网速或其他原因下载失败请重新下载,重复下载不扣分。




    关于得利文库 - 版权申诉 - 免责声明 - 上传会员权益 - 联系我们

    工信部备案号:黑ICP备15003705号-8 |经营许可证:黑B2-20190332号 |营业执照:91230400333293403D|公安局备案号:备案中

    © 2017-2019 www.deliwenku.com 得利文库. All Rights Reserved 黑龙江转换宝科技有限公司  


    收起
    展开