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    DevelopmentofCom_省略_ltsofCaseStudies_.docx

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    DevelopmentofCom_省略_ltsofCaseStudies_.docx

    Journal of Ocean University of China Oceanic and Coastal Sea Research ISSN 1672 5182, October 30, 2006, Vol.5, No.4, pp.311 316 http //www. ouc. edu. cn/xbywb/ E-mail xbywb uc. Development of Combined Biological Technology for Treatment of High-strength Oianic Wastewater and Results of Case Studies RENNanqi, WANG Aijie HAN Hongjun, MA Fang, DING Jie, SHI Yue, and ZHAO Dan Department of Environmental Science Engineerings School of Municipal Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology , Harbin 150090, P . R . China Received April 8, 2006; accepted September 17, 2006 Abstract Our study group has developed a unique combined biological technology to treat high-strength organic wastewaters from the industries of dyestuff, pharmaceutical, chemical engineering and zymolysis by using the principles of anaerobic ecological niche and bio-phase separation. The study obtained five national invention patents and eight patent equipments. This technology contains four kernel processes two-phase anaerobic-aerobic process, hydrolysis-acidification-oxidation process, UASBAF-oxidation process, and internal cycling-hydrolysis-oxidation process. Fifteen pilot projects were accomplished in the basins of Tai Lake, Huai River, Liao River and Songhua River, and their total capital investment reached 185.214 million Yuan RMB. Compared to conventional wastewater treatment technology, the innovative technology is more cost- effective for high-strength organic wastewater treatment, can save capital investment by 15 30 , lessen land usage by 20 to 40 and decrease the operating cost by 10 to 25. The operating cost of treatment per cubic meter industrial wastewater could be below 0.6 to 1.4 Yuan RMB. Key words bio-phase separation; combined biological technology; high-strength organic wastewater; pilot plant 1 丨 ntroduction High-strength organic industrial wastewater discharged from pharmaceutical plants, chemical engineering plants, zymolysis mills and dyeing and printing factories is currently one of the most severe environmental pollution sources in China, which requires development of highly efficient techniques to handle the hazards it causes. Of all the technologies available, the two-phase anaerobic process developed by Ghosh and Poland in 1971 and the upflow anaerobic sludge bed UASB reactor developed by Lettinga in 1973 are the milestones which improve the treatment efficiency of high-strength organic wastewater significantly in terms of microbial ecology and innovative pro- cesses Cohen et al„ 1980; Denac et al., 1988; Dinopoulou et al. 1988. With the tougher environmental law enforcement in developed countries since the 1980’ s, more and more industrial material production has been moved to the third world countries, leading to heavier burden of wasterwater treatment to them. In the past decades, many researches in developing countries including China have addressed the * Corresponding author. Tel 008645186282195 E-mail waj0578 treatment technology of high-strength organic waste water, which is usually a simple combination of anaerobic and aerobic processes Lu et al., 2002; Shi et al„ 2002; Shu and Yang, 2002 . In addition, many researchers are bounded to the traditional ideas that the methane production is the rate-limiting step of the two-phase anaerobic process, and accordingly, inadequate studies were carried out on the acidogenic fermentation stage, which restricted the further development of efficient anaerobic equipment in the long term. Therefore, most of the techniques related to combined processes have the disadvantages of high- cost, low-efficiency and unreasonable unit match, which makes the development of new technologies more urgent Ren and Wang, 2004. 2 Conceptual Framework Building on the cutting-edge researches, techniques, and difficulties to be solved on high-strength organic wastewater treatment, the authors presented a mechanism of anaerobic ecological niche plus bio-phase separation Ren et al. 1997. Based on this mechanism, the anaerobic reaction stages of hydrolysis, acidification and methanogensis can be controlled at different process units where anaerobes could cooperate harmoniously. Meanwhile, engineered bacteria 312 Journal of Ocean University of China Vol.5,No.4, 2006 with specific functions are adopted in a certain process unit, and the microbial metabolic pathway and optimal operating conditions are quantitatively controlled to further improve the treatment capability of the process system. Based on this mechanism and the consideration of the characteristics of high-strength organic wastewater discharged from the industries of dyeing and printing, pharmaceutics, chemical engineering and zymolysis, the following three aspects were jointly investigated so as to improve wastewater treatment development of highly efficient technologies and equipments which are cost-effective and energy-saving; establishment of effective approaches to intelligentlizing and auto-control for this technology; presentation of various combination processes corresponding to the wastewater properties. Thereby, after 9-year9 s research, an innovative combined biological technology has been developed by the authors for the treatment of hard-degradable wastewater. 3 Technology and Process System This innovative technology contains four key biological techniques that are most effective and efficient for the treatment of four kinds of high strength organic wastewaters, being awarded with five national invention patents and eight patent equipments. The tech nology scheme and relevant creative achievements are summarized in the following subsections. 3.1 A Combined Two-phase Anaerobic-aerobic Process for Organic Wastewater Aiming at the quality characteristics of high strength, high chrominance and hard biodegradable waste-waters such as traditional Chinese medical herbs processing wastewater and pharmaceutical raw material wastewater, we developed a combined two-phase anaerobic-aerobic process with a reasonable flow chart. Such a development was mainly based on our research achievements on the physiological ecology of acid-producing bacteria in two-phase anaerobic processes, which broke through the idea limitation that methanogens and methanogenesis are the key to improving the perance of two-phase anaerobic process Ren et al„ 1997. Furthermore, particular engineered bacteria were inoculated into the hybrid anaerobic bioreactor, so as to maintain the high biomass and high running stability of the process system. 3 . 1 . 1 Schematic diagram of process The schematic diagrams of the combined two-phase anaerobic-aerobic process for high-strength organic wastewater are shown in F igs. 1 and 2. Fig.l Combined two-phase anaerobic-aerobic process Scheme 1. A. Integrated aci- dogenic bioreactor for organic wastewater Ren, 2000-05-04 ; B. Hybrid anaerobic bioreactor; C. Cross-flow aerobic bioreactor Ren et al.9 1998-09-03. Fig.2 Combined two-phase anaerobic-aerobic process Scheme 2. C. Cross-flow aerobic bioreactor Ren et al.9 1998-09-03. The key units of the combined two-phase anaerobic- aerobic biological treatment technique are four patent equipments-integrated organic wastewater treatment acidogenic fermentation device Ren, 2000-05-04, integrated two-phase anaerobic biological treatment reactor Ren, 2002-10-22, cross flow aerobic biological treatment reactor Ren et al 1998-09-03, integrated hydrolysis aerobic biological treatment reactor REN N. Q. et al. Case Studies on High-strength Organic Wastewater Biotreatment 313 Ren et al. 2001-07-10. They are all integrated e- quipments with various sizes and types. And also, three national invention patents on the control of microbial metabolic pathway Ren et al 2005-11-20; Ren et al. 2005-12-12; Wang et al; 2006-06-25 have been granted. Therefore, it is possible to optimize the treatment system by adopting different combinations or selecting optimal design parameters among the above-mentioned novel processes according to the water quality and quantity. 3 . 1 . 2 Treatment efficiencycase study The case study of the combined two-phase anaerobic-aerobic process applied in Harbin Traditional Chinese Medicine Co. shows its treatment efficiency as follows the treatment capacity is 1 500 m3d S The concentrations in influent and effluent are 19 000mg L 1 and less than 150mgL 1 resp ectively for COD, 4000 mg L 1 and less than 60 mg L 1 respectively for BOD, and 450 mg L 1 and less than 70 mg L 1 respectively for SS; the operating cost is 0.9 Yuan RMB per cu bic meter wastewater or 0.09 Yuan RMB per gram COD, reducing the capital investment by 3 600000 Yuan RMB, the operating cost by 164 000 Yuan RMB per year, and the penalty for pollutant discharge violations by 1 020000 Yuan RMB per year. 3. 2 Hydrolysis -acidification-oxidation Process for Wastewater from Dyestuff Production Wastewater from dyestuff production contains complex organic materials and high chrominance, which is discharged intermittently so that its quality and quantity vary continually. Therefore, it is hard for the effluent from conventional aerobic biological treatment process or anaerobic-aerobic combination process to reach the water quality standard although the investment and operation cost for the processes have been large. 3 . 2 . 1 Schematic diagram of process Fig. 3 shows the scheme of hydrolysis-acidification- oxidation process developed by the authors. Fig.3 Scheme of hydrolysis-acidification-oxidation process. C. Cross-flow aerobic bioreactor Ren et al.-, 1998-09-03. The hydrolysis-acidification-oxidation process has the following three key technical aspects. First, a hydrolysis-acidification bioreactor Ren, 2001 07-10 is adopted in this process, which is a continuous-flow stirring reactor with proper structural design and optimal habitat for fermentative microorganisms; the e- quipment has advantages of high efficiency, high loading capacity, short HRT, good flow pattern and simplicity of operation. Two steps of amidogen-addition and amidogen-removement are involved in the hydrolysis-phase and acidification-phase respectively for the degradation of macro-molecular heterocyclic organic compounds in the wastewater; therefore, 25 35 of the BOD/COD ratio in the wastewater can be increased during the course of hydrolysis and acidification, which accelerates the biodegradation of hard-uti- lization organics and fasten the next step of oxidation. Secondly, a cross-flow aerobic bioreactor Ren et al., 1998-09-03 is used in this process, in which cross- flow carriers with special spatial structure is designed so as to a special turbulent contact between sewage and biofilm, which improves the oxygen transfer rate and accelerates the biofilm ation. The cross-flow aerobic bioreactor has advantages of good flow state, high biomass, less excess sludge, high shock load resistance and simple operation. In comparison with conventional aerobic process, the efficiency of cross-flow aerobic bioreactor was improved by 30 or more. Thirdly, particular sludge decrement measures are applied in this process, i. e. some acetogens are adopted to consume the excess sludge, which decreases the amount of discharged sludge remarkably, and consequently the cost for sludge treatment and disposal are decreased substantially. 3 . 2 . 2 Treatment efficiencycase study The case study of the hydrolysis-acidification-oxidation process in Siling Dyestuff Production Group Co. shows its treatment efficiency as follows The treatment capacity is 4000m3d 1 ; the influent and effluent concentrations are 3 000 mg L 1 and less than 100 mg L 1 respectively for COD, 700 mg L nd less than 60 mg L Respectively for BOD, and 4 000 10 000 mg L 1 and less than 180 000 mg L 1 respectively for chrominance; the operating cost is 1.0 Yuan RMB per cubic meter wastewater, reducing the capital investment by 2 960 000 Yuan RMB, the operating 314 Journal of Ocean University of China Vol. 5, No. 4, 2006 cost by 438000 Yuan RMB per year, and the penalty for pollutant discharge violation by around 1460000 Yuan RMB per year. 3.3 UASBAF oxidation Process for Organic Waste- water 3 . 3 . 1 Schematic diagram of process The scheme of UASBAF-oxidation process developed by the authors for treating organic wastewater is shown in Fig.4. The technical characteristics and key features are as follows 1 An upflow anaerobic treatment with an upflow anaerobic bioreactor packed with an inclined pipe separator Han, 2003-05-06 is adopted in this process, which can bear high-strength sludges, high organic loading rates, and exhibit high ability to resist shock-loading rates; it does not need sludge returning and mixing facilities, thus resulting in the reduction of both capital investment and operation/main- Fig.4 Scheme of UASBAF-oxidation process treating organic wastewater. D. Upflow anaerobic bioreactor packed with inclined pipe separator Han, 2003-05-06; E. Free flow cycling aerobic bioreactor Han, 2003-02-10. tenance costs by about 10 and 22 respectively. 2 A granular sludge rapid ation has been developed, which contributes to the rapid start-up of the upflow anaerobic bioreactors with inclined pipe separation; the granular sludge has high biomass and high activity that improves the organic degradation rate by over 10 compared to conventional anaerobic bioreactors. 3 A liquid distribution equipment has been adopted for the upflow anaerobic bioreactor with inclined pipe separation to meet the requirement of anaerobes growth and accelerate the ation of granular sludge. 4 The free flow cycling aerobic bioreactor Han, 2003-02-10 adopted in this process has a high capacity of shock loading resistance; it is also able to counteract the impact from sharp variation of the COD concentration, pH value and/or other anaerobic conditions. 3 . 3 . 2 Treatment efficiency case study The case study of the UASBAF-oxidation process in Heilongjiang Provincial Linen Co. shows its treatment efficiency as follows The treatment capacity is 3 000 m3d 1 ; The influent and effluent concentrations are 6000-8000 mgL 1 and less than lOOmgL 1 respectively for COD, 15 000 and 2 000 mg L 1 respectively for BOD, and 1 000 mg L 1 and less than 100 mg L 1 respectively for SS; the operating cost is about 1.0 Yuan RMB per cubic meter wastewater; reducing the capital investment by 936 000 Yuan RMB, the operating cost by 229 000 Yuan RMB per year, and the penalty for pollutant discharge violation by 647 000 Yuan RMB per year. 3.4 Internal Cycling-hydrolysis-oxidation Process for Wastewater from Breweries 3 . 4 . 1 Schematic diagram of process Fig.5 shows the internal cycling-hydroxylation-oxidation process for wastewater from the breweries Fig.5 Scheme of internal cycling-hydrolysis-oxidation process. B. H

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