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    城市滨水绿地景观规划设计_英文_姚文飞.docx

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    城市滨水绿地景观规划设计_英文_姚文飞.docx

    Journal of Landscape Research 2011 , 3 6 68 -70, 74 Editor Shao Mei ProofreaderWu Xiaoyan Landscape Planning and Design of Urban Waterfront Green Spaces YAO Wen -fei , QIU Yan -chang * , YU Shou -chao , LIU Ying Faculty of Agriculture , Liaocheng Universit y , Liaocheng , Shandong 252059 , China Abstract Definition of urban waterfront green spaces is given, its design principles are summarized as human-centered, ecology -first , int egrated nature and humanity , highlighting regional characteristics , unified planning and overall coordination. Design of ecological plant community , design of traffic network and revetment management is analyzed t o explore design contents and techniques of urban waterfront green spaces. In t erms of the design of ecological plant community , t he selection of landscape plants and landscaping of waterf ront green spaces are analyzed;traf fic network is further classified into water traffic , waterf ront pathway , and driveway system;wat erfront revetment management is specifically discussed from the original natural revetment , natural revet ment reinforced by natural designs , and natural revetment reinforced by artificial designs. Problems in the modern urban waterfront green spaces are proposed , such as contradictions between diversified functions and simple designs , lack of regional char- acterist ics , viewers are kept away from water;countermeasures are also given in the hope of pushing urban waterfront green spaces in a healthy development road, so as to improve the overall landscape quality of urban waterfront green spaces. Key words Wat erfront landscapes , Waterfront , Green spaces , Landscape planning As a great source of life , water is an indispensable condi - tion for the survival of human beings. People cannot live with - out water , so many cities are built by mountains and water to satisfy its citizens love for water , and waterfront areas of these cities always have the most beautiful and distinctive land - scapes. Urban waterfront green spaces are essential compo - nents of urban waterfront areas , playing the role of beautifying waterfront areas and satisfying needs of water -loving citizens. Such green spaces always have zonal waters as the center , and value landscape effects and greening features of banks , they are important resources for the construction of urban wa - terfront areas , because they can provide excellent landscapes for urban landscaping , work as ideal eco -corridors and also high -grade green lines of cities. Along with the development of Chinese cities , urban waterfront green spaces have drawn more and more attention from the public , and how to properly design urban waterfront green spaces has become an urgent task of urban construction. This study , by introducing defini - tion , design principles , contents and techniques of urban wa - terfront green spaces , summarizes problems in the landscape planning of urban waterfront green spaces , and proposes some countermeasures to facilitate the future construction of urban waterfront green spaces. 1 Definition of urban waterfront green spaces Urban waterfront green spaces are eco -green corridors with both ecological and beautification effects , containing water and land , rich landscapes and eco -ination. Urban water - front green spaces are mostly distributed along rivers , lakes [ 1] tents are included A. As a part of urban public green spaces , it is given the properties and characteristics of urban public green spaces ;B. As a part of urban waterfront areas , it is a joint water area of urban land mainly green spaces and water lake , river and etc. ;C. As a part of urban public spaces , it is influenced by many factors of cities , and has to carry out its urban functions , reflect problems of cities , show images of cities and hold up activities of citizens. 2 Landscape design principles of urban waterfront green spaces 2. 1 Human -centered , ecology -first One of the most im - portant functions of waterfront green spaces is to provide citi - zens a favorable waterfront plat for enhancing communi - cations among people , so its design should put users needs first. If there are residential areas in the neighborhood , facili - ties for children and seniors should be installed ;if there are in - dustrial areas nearby , places for the gathering of people will not be necessary. Meanwhile , urban waterfront green spaces play also the role of beautifying the environment , reducing noi - ses , and creating favorable urban ecological spaces. As Chi - nese cities grow better and better , ecology has attracted more and more attention from the public. Because urban waterfront green spaces are located on the fringes of land and water , they are characterized by biodiversity , landscape ecology prin - ciples should be followed in its design , with plant landscaping as the principal part , to create natural waterfront landscapes. Meanwhile , human interventions or damages should be re - duced to the least to maintain ecological balance , highlight and sea as green scenic lines of cities . The following 3 con - harmonious coexistence of human and nature [ 2 ] , then the de - signed waterfront landscapes will be able to protect environ - Received May 9 , 201 1 Acce pted Jun e 9 , 20 11 * Co rrespon ding aut hor. E -mail ldyl2 66 16 3. co m. ment , and also satisfy users demands in landscape and function. YAO Wen-fei et al. Landscape Planning and Design of Urban Waterfront Green Spaces 69 [4 ] [6 ] 2. 2 Integrated nature and humanity , highlighting regional characteristics The unification of nature and humanity focu - ses on the integration of natural environment and humanistic environment in the design of urban waterfront green spaces. Urban waterfront green spaces seem places for entertainment and rest , but features of the city s history and culture should be fully explored for the design , then expressed by landscape de - sign techniques to show the profound history and culture of the city , highlight its landscape characteristics [3 ] , and maintain the continuity of its history context. Taking Liaocheng City for an example , Guangyue Mansion built in the Ming Dynasty 1368 - 1644 is located in its downtown areas , Beijing - Hangzhou Ca - nal which is one of the two engineering wonders of ancient Chi - na passes the city , and there are also many famous scenic are - as like Dongchang Lake , Haiyuan Pavilion , Guild Hall of Shanxi and Shaanxi , so Liaocheng City always focuses its develop - ment target of Water City by North of the Yangtze River , Ancient Capital of the Ancient Canal , which fully considers characteristics of local history and culture. In addition , the har - mony between design contents and neighboring environment should also be valued to highlight distinctive features of the city. 2.3 Unified planning and overall coordination Urban wa - terfront green spaces should be regarded as a part of the urban planning , but not an independent unit , just like the ancient Chi - nese strategist says , the one good at playing game focuses on the overall situation , but the one not good at it cares about only single moves , so the landscape design of urban water - front green spaces should also take its impact on urban devel - opment into consideration. Therefore , urban waterfront green spaces should be planned in an all -around way as a whole sys - tem from the perspective of region. Meanwhile , based on satis - fying its basic use functions , other functions of urban waterfront green spaces in ecology , landscape and flood -prevention should also be considered to construct urban public spaces with [3 ] should be harmonious , and regional characteristics highlighted. Indigenous plant species should be selected from conventional ornamental tree species as principal landscapes , or plant spe - cies of the same landscape type chosen to make plant land - scapes diversified. Meanwhile , new and fine seedlings can be properly introduced , but the coordination and adapation of these new species to the local environment should be investiga - ted to not destroy the stablity of local ecosystems because of the blind pursuit for novelty , uniqueness , difference and rari - ty [5 ] . Waterfront spaces are marginal zones lying between land and waterss , thus its plant landscaping should not only consid - er about landscape effects of plants on land , but also in water , tree species in waterfront spaces should have good tolerance to humidity , and also favorable landscape effects. In North China , conventional waterfront plant species are Salix babylonica , Metasequoia glyptostroboides , Forsythia suspensa Thunb. Vahl. , Phragmites australis , Acorus calamus Linn. , Typha orientalis Presl. , and Nelumbo nucifera. 3. 1. 2 Landscaping of urban waterfront green spaces. Plants are effective tools to restore and improve ecological functions of waterfront green spaces , design of waterfront plant communi - ties should simulate the structure of ecological communities in natural waterfront areas , and nature reserves should be esta - blished in proper areas. Only if there are complete plant com - munities , the balance of the whole waterfront ecosystem will be maintained , therefore , landscaping of waterfront green spaces should apply natural ecological designs , on the basis of tradi - tional plant landscaping and focusing on ornamental effects of plants and also local characteristics , simulate the ation of natural water systems , create an ecological environment favo - rable for the growth of waterfront plants , establish a complete ecosystem of waterfront green spaces. These natural eco - logical communities usually have high productivity , as well as high economic and social benefits for the urban develop - multiple functions . That is to say , landscape planning of ur - ment . Meanwhile , original ecological communities in water ban waterfront green spaces should have a systematic planning pattern just like construction engineering , and fully consider di - versified demands of the city , because one -sided planning will be unfair and cause unnecessary loss. 3 Design contents and techniques Landscape planning of urban waterfront green spaces in - cludes the design and treatment of fundamental elements within green spaces such as compound plant communities , road pavement system and revetment [1 ,4 ] . 3. 1 Design of ecological plant communities Ecological and landscape functions of urban waterfront green spaces are realized by plants , so plant landscaping should be a principal part in the design of waterfront plant communities , landscape ecology followed to simulate structures of natural eco -communi - ties , use indigenous species , give consideration to the diversity of plant communities , choose right species for right land , and maintain the balance of waterfront ecosystems. 3. 1.1 Selection of plant species. Local environmental condi - tions should be fully considered , the style of plants and water should not be neglected but restored , rigid design patterns should be broken to create urban waterfront green spaces of wild funs , favorable ecological functions. 3. 2 Design of traffic network Traffic network is the land - scape framework of urban waterfront green spaces , and also an important channel connecting land and water. Therefore , the design of its traffic network should be combined with actual conditions of the water system to create a human -centered road system , and continuous green belts by expanding riverfront green spaces as much as possible. Road traffic and water traffic should be organically combined , the phenomenon of expanding roads narrowing rivers avoided , the connection between water and neighboring green spaces , landscape settings and service fa - cilities enhanced , so citizens can approach water as closely as possible , and their water -loving needs be satisfied. 3. 2. 1 Water traffic. Water touring routes can not only relieve the fatigue of tourists because of the long walk in waterfront green spaces , but also enable tourists to better enjoy natural landscapes by taking pleasure -boats , provide them a wider field of vision , and satisfy their wishes for getting close to water. For 70 Journal of Landscape Research 2011 example , docks on the lake bank in Zonal Park of Liaocheng City are joints between road traffic and water traffic , elegant de - signs of dock buildings distinctive landscapes. Dongchang Lake has islets and a bridge of 20 openings as viewing targets for tourists choosing water traffic. 3. 2. 2 Waterfront pathway. Setting waterfront pathway is a frequently -used technique in the design of urban waterfront green spaces , it is designed to create a serene and easy at - mosphere , and cooperate with water for tourists walking and appreciating scenery dynamically , including steps , steeping stone , trestle and so on. To enable viewers to experience water surface , and get close to water , waterfront pathways should be lower enough , and if there are 2 or more pathways in waterfront green spaces , different design techniques can be used to present diversified landscapes. Waterfront green spaces are divided into plots by pathways , and these plots can be installed with pergolas , feature walls , lamp posts , sculpture and such landscape settings to enrich waterfront landscapes , and also proper plant furnishings can be used to create natural ecological landscapes. 3.2 .3 Driveway system. If waterfront green spaces are large in size and wide enough , motor carriageway and non -motor lane should be designed in proper locations. Landscape design requires that driveways should be built as straight as possible , sharp bend should be avoided , road should be wide enough with smooth pavement. To ensure the security of pedestrians , driveway and waterfront pathway should be separated , for exam - ple , lakefront green spaces of Jinji Lake in Suzhou have a broad lake surface , lakefront pathways for tourists appreciating surrounding scenery , and also pollution -free battery tourist cars for tourists long -distance sightseeing , pathway and driveway have their own roads without intervening to each other. 3. 3 Revetment design of urban waterfront green spaces Revetment is the borderline between land and water , and for water , it is also the front edge of land. An excellent revetment design can not only create favorable waterfront green spaces and landscapes , attract tourists , but also protect eco -environ - ment of waterfront green spaces , in this sense , revetment de - sign determines the attractiveness of waterfront green spaces. In China , there are 3 types of mostly -applied revetments verti - cal , slope and staged ;while deficienc

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